ic-twirl.gif (677 個位元組) INTRODUCTION TO VOLCANOLOGY ic-twirl.gif (677 個位元組)


bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)CONTENTS

 1. Introduction
 2. Relationships of Volcanism and Plate Tectonics
 3. Magma Chamber and Physical Properties of Magma
 4. Explosive Types, Topography and Products of Volcanism
 5. Lava Flows and Domes
 6. Types and Mechanism of Pyroclastic Fragments
 7. Characteristics of Subaerial Eruption
 8. Characteristics of Hydrovolcanism
 9. Facies Analysis of Volcanic Products
 10.Volcanic Hazard
 11.Volcanism in Taiwan


bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)VOLCANISM AND TECTONIC SETTINGS

 1. Mid-Oceanic Ridge Volcanism
 2. Back-Arc Basin Spreading Volcanism
 3. Intraplate Oceanic Volcanism
 4. Intraplate Continental Volcanism
 5. Continental Rift Volcanism
 6. Island Arc Volcanism
 7. Microcontinental Arc Volcanism
 8. Continental Margin Arc Volcanism

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 15 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組)Chapter 14 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組)Gill, J.B. (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 390p.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組)Thorpe, R. S., ed. (1982) Andesites: Orogenic Andesites and Related Rocks. John Wiley and Son, New York, 724p.

bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)MAGMA CHAMBER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGMA

 I. Magma Chamber

  A. Volume
  B. Zonation
   a.Large Calcalkaline System-----Bishop Tuff
   b.Small Highly Alkalic System-----Laacher See Volcano
   c.Oceanic Rhyolite-Basalt System----Askja Volcano, Iceland
   d.Very Small Mafic-Intermediate Magma System
  C.Detection
   a.Yellowstone Park
   b.Long Valley Caldera
   c.Hawaiian

 II. Physical Properties of Magma

  A.Classification
  B.Temperature
  C.Density
  D.Viscosity

   Factors Controlling Viscosity in Magma:
   a.Pressure
   b.Temperature
   c.Volatile Content
   d.Chemical Composition
   e.Crystal Content
   f.Bubble Content
  E.Strength

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 2 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 2&3 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.

bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)Explosive Types, Topography and Products of Volcanism

 1.Classification of volcanic eruption
  A.Based on spatial relationship
   Central, Fissure and Areal Eruption
  B.Based on products
   Magmatic, Phreatomagmatic and Phreatic Eruption
  C.Based on violence
   (a)Lava Eruptions
    Icelandic, Hawaiian and Viscous lava flows
   (b)Pyroclastic Eruptions
    Strombolian, Vulcanean, Vesuvian, Pelean and Plinian
   (c)Walker's Classification
   (d)Explosion Index (E)
     E=tephra/tephra+lava
   (e)Volcanic Explosivity Index

 2.Types of Volcano
  A.Basic lava volcanoes
  B.Acidic lava volcanoes
  C.Pyroclastic volcanoes
  D.Mixed eruption volcanoes
  E.Miscellaneous volcanoes

 3.Products of Eruption
  A.Lava flows
  B.pyroclastic deposits
  C.Volcaniclastic deposits

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 3 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 5 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Part 1 in "Volcanic Textures", Edited by McPhie, J., Doyle, M. and Allen, R.


bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)Lava Flows and Domes

 1. Size and form of subaerial flows
  Massive lava, Pahoehoe, Aa, Blocky lava
 2.Factoris affecting the morphology of subaerial lavas
  a.Effusion rate
  b.Physical properties
  c.slope
 3.Eruption of basaltic lavas
  a.Features of subaerial basaltic lava flows
   Pahoehoe and Aa lava, Flood basalt, Plains basalt
  b.Features of submarine basaltic lava flows
  c.Subaerial basaltic lavas flowing intto water
 4.Eruption of intermediate lavas
 5.Eruption of rhyolitic lavas

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 4 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 5 in "Volcanoes", Edited by C. Ollier

bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)Types and Mechanism of Pyroclastic Fragments

 1.Pyroclastic Fragments
  A.Classification
  B.Vitric particles and pyrogenic crystal
   a.Formation
   b.surface texture
  C.Structures
   Planar, Cross, Graded, Massive beds
 2.Mechanism
  A.Fragmentation due to magmatic eruption
   a.controling factor
   b.Explosive fragmentation from a seal,

    near surface magma chamber or conduit
   c.Explosive fragmentation of a vesiculating

    magma eruption from an open vent
   d.Magma mixing as a means of triggering explosive eruption
  B.Fragmentation due to phreatic or steam explosions and    

   phreatomagmatic eruption
  C.Quench- or chill-shatter fragmentation
  D.Flow fragmentation(autobrecciation)
  E.Epiclastic fragmentation

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 3 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 5 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.

bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)Characteristics of Subaerial Eruption

 1. Mechanism
 2. Evidences for subaerial eruption
 3. Three types of pyroclastic deposits
 4. Eruptions producing pyroclastic falls
  A. Definition
  B. Explosive eruption columns
  C. Deposits
 5. Pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions
  A. Definition
  B. Lava-dome or lava flow collapse
  C. Eruption column collapse
  D. Deposits
 6. Origins of pyroclastic surges
  A. Definition
  B. Surges associated with phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptions
  C. Surges associated with flows
  D. Deposits

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 5 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 6 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 6and 7 in "Volcanoes", Edited by C. Ollier

bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)Characteristics of Hydrovolcanism


 1. Hydrovolcanism
  Definition and Characteristics
 2. Deep water stage
 3. Shoaling stage
 4. Transition submarine-subaerial
 5. Silicic subaqueous volcanism
 6. Subglacial volcanism

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 9 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 9&10 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.

bullet-4.gif (866 個位元組)Facies Analysis of Volcanic Products

 1. Introduction
 2. Factors affecting original lithological characteristics
 3. Facies as diagnostic indicators of paleoenvironments
  a. pillow lava --- subaqueous
  b. accretionary lapilli --- subaerial
  c. ballistic bomb-sag structures --- near vent
  d. eutaxitic texture --- subaerial
  e. pink --- thermal alteration --- subaerial
 4. Lithofacies
 5. Volcanic facies(Association of facies)
  a. facies based upon deposits of volcanism
  b. facies based on position relative to source
  c. facies based on environment of deposition
  d. facies based on primary composition
  e. diagenetic rock facies
 6. Facies models for volcanic succession
  a. continental basaltic succession
  b. continental stratovolcanoes
  c. continental silicic volcanoes
  d. submarine basaltic rift volcanism
  e. oceanic basaltic seamounts
  f. marine stratovolcanoes
  g. submarine felsic volcanoes
  h. deep marine facies derived fron shallow marine--aubaerial

   volcanic centers
  i. interglacial basaltic and rhyolitic volcanism
  j. precambrian volcanism

c-title.gif (901 個位元組)REFERENCES

bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 14 in "Volcanic Succession", Edited by Cas, R.A.F. and Wright, J.Y.
bullet1.gif (56 個位元組) Chapter 13 in "Pyroclastic Rocks", Edited by Fisher, R.V. and Schmincke, H.-U.

page_up.gif (206 個位元組)