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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Aa︰阿ㄚ熔岩
原為夏威夷土語,指當地的特定熔岩,現已廣泛用於表面粗糙、破裂的熔岩流。

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Active volcano︰活火山
地底下仍有岩漿酷存在且正在活動的火山

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Aerosol︰浮質
懸浮於氣體媒介中的物質

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Ash︰火山灰
火山噴出物成分之一,為細小的灰狀碎屑。大量的火山灰落(Ash fall)堆積會造成大量傷亡,如著名的義大利維蘇威火山。

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Ash fall︰火山灰落
大量的火山灰由高空墬落稱之

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Astenosphere︰軟流圈
地函中較為柔軟的部分,位於岩石圈之下。

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Atmosphere︰大氣層
環繞於地球的氣體。

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Basalt︰玄武岩
中性的火成岩,夠成大部分的海洋地殼,外觀多呈現深黑色。如果大的玄武岩流行成平原,稱之為洪流玄武岩,如印度得干原。

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Blast︰爆發
當火山以猛烈的方式噴發時,我們稱其為爆發。

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Block:A large angular lava fragment which is thrown out during an eruption. Usually 1m or more across.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Bomb:Bombs are large, rounded, lava fragments thrown out during an eruption. They are often modified in shape during their flight or upon impact.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Caldera: A huge bowl-shaped crater, often kilometres across, formed by collapse into the magma chamber or by explosive volcanic eruptions.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Cinders:Light fragments of lava, between 64mm and 30cm in size. Also named scoria.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Cinder cone: A steep conical hill formed above a vent, usually less than 250m high. Also named scoria-cone.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Complex Volcano: A volcano that consists of a complex of two or more vents, or a volcano that has an associated dome, either in its crater or on its flanks.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Composite Volcano: A steep volcanic cone composed of lava fragments as well as other volcanic products. Also called strato-volcano.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Compound Volcano:See Complex Volcano.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Conduit: The passage followed by magma in a volcano.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Continental Drift:Theory formed by the German scientist Alfred Wegener. According to the theory continents move in consequence of the movement of plates which move in consequence of convection currents.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Crater:A bowl-shaped, steep-sided, hollow in the summit of a volcano which lies above the vent from which volcanic material is expelled.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Crust:The thin outermost layer of the Earth, forming both the continents and the ocean floors.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Debris Avalanche:A rapid mass movement that may include volcanic rock, water, snow, glacier ice, trees and other pyroclastic material.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Dome: Domes form when a dome-shaped mass of volcanic rock is too viscous to flow far from the vent. They are often formed on composite volcanoes at the end of an eruption.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Dormant Volcano:A volcano which is presently inactive but which may erupt again.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Eruption:The way liquids, solids and gases are expelled on the Earth's surface by volcanic activity. This can range from explosive outbursts to quiet, noiseless lava-outcome.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)EROS(Earth Resources Observation System)
地球資源觀測系統。美國地質調查所與NASA合作所建立的組織,主要從事更新測圖術等。

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Extinct Volcano:A volcano which is not currently erupting and which isn't likely to do so in the future.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Fissure: A crack or fracture in the Earth's crust or the slope of a volcano, up which magma may rise.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Flood Basalt: Large-scale outpourings of basalt lava producing thick accumulations.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Fumarole:A vent or opening giving off gases or steam. Fumaroles occur on both active and dormant volcanoes.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Gas:See Volcanic Gas.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Hot Spot:Fixed places within the mantle where rocks melt to generate magma.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Hydrovolcanic Eruptions: Eruptions highly associated with water.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Lahar:Mudflows formed by the mixing of volcanic particles and water.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Landslide:downslope movement of a mass of bedrock under the influence of gravity.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Lava:Magma or molten rock which reaches the Earth's surface exposed to air or water. Lava occurs as flows, domes, fragments within cones of volcanoes and as pillows formed on the ocean floor.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Lava Flow:Lava which is outpoured in a flow on the land from a vent or fissure. Examples of lava flows include aa and pahoehoe lavaflows.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Lithosphere:The solid outer shell of the Earth which is composed of the Earth's crust and the solid outermost layer of the mantle. The lithosphere lies above the asthenosphere. It is broken up into plates.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Maar:German word used to describe a crater which is almost circular. The crater is usually filled with (rain)water.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Magma: Very hot, molten rock which is formed within the earth by partial melting of the mantle.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Magma chamber:A chamber(cavity or reservoir) in the lithosphere where rising magma is "collected" and halts for varying lengths of time.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Mantle:The intermediate zones between the Earth's crust and core.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Nu  ardente:French word used to describe a glowing avalanche of hot gas and other volcanic fragments of all size(like ash, pumice, rock debris, etc.).

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Oceanic Ridge:Ridge on the ocean floor where two adjacent plates diverge and where new crust is generated by volcanic eruptions.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Pahoehoe:Hawaiian term used to describe thin, smoothly flowing, lava flows with a glassy plastic skin.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Phreatic Eruption:A sudden violent eruption of steam which is caused when water and heated volcanic rocks interact.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Phreatomagmatic Eruption:Eruptions characterised by steam explosions caused by the interaction of rising magma and surface water.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Pillow lava:Interconnected lobs of lava formed underwater by submarine activity.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Plate:Plates are huge slabs into which the crust as well as the upper part of the mantle are divided.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Plate Tectonics:Theory dealing with plates and their activity.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Plinian Eruption:One of the most explosive types of eruptions, known for producing nus ardentes and lahars.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Plug:Lava solidified in the conduit of an extinct volcano.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Pumice:Cinder so bubbly that it floats in water.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Pyroclastic:Adjective used to describe rock material formed by a volcanic explosion.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Pyroclastic Flow:Mixtures of hot gas and ash travelling very quickly down the slope of a volcano.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Ring of Fire:The belt of volcanoes that surround the Pacific Ocean. This belt contains about two-thirds of the world's active volcanoes. It is marked by the volcanic chains of Japan, Kamchatka, South Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, the Cascade Range of the US and Canada, Central America, the Andes, New Zealand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Papua- New Guinea, Indonesia, the Philippines, and last but not least the Mariana, Izu and Bonin Islands which complete the circle.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Seafloor spreading:The process in which the ocean floor is extended when two plates move apart.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Seismograph:An instrument that is used to record vibrations of the Earth.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Shield Volcano:Volcano which has a broad shaped cone with gently slopes. Shield volcanoes are built by runny lava flows.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Silica:Fundamental component of volcanic rocks. It is the most important factor determining the fluidity of magma. The higher the silica of a magma the greater its viscosity.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Solfatara:Italian word used to describe a fumarole that emits sulphurous gases.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Spatter:Lava fragments, between 64mm and 30cm in size. which are often emitted as hot clots. Spatter often welds together to form steep-sided cones.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Spatter cone:Steep-sided cone of spatter.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Stratosphere:The upper layer of the atmosphere.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Stratovolcano:See composite volcano.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Strombolian Eruption: Short-lived eruptions that throw out blocks and bombs. Lava flows also occur.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Subduction:The process in which one plate is pushed downward beneath another plate into the underlying mantle when plates move towards eachother.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Tephra:Collective noun for all sorts of volcanic material that are erupted from a crater or vent.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Tremor:Earthquake activity with a low amplitude associated with the movement of magma.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Tsunami:Japanese word that is used to describe huge sea-waves generated by earthquakes or violent volcanic eruptions.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Tuff Cone:Steep conical hill with a deep, wide crater. The cone is composed of thin layers of fine fragments. A tuff cone is smaller and steeper than a tuff ring.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Tuff Ring:A broad, circular, low-rimmed, well-bedded accumulation of fine fragments, often 1km in diameter, around a crater. The crater of a tuff ring is wider than the one of a cinder cone.

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bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Vent:The vent is an opening at the Earth's surface through which volcanic materials are released.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Viscosity:Term to show how sticky a magma or lava is.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Volcanic Ash:Volcanic rock which is exploded from a vent in fragments less than 2mm in size. Ash may be solid or molten when first erupted.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Volcanic Gas:Volcanic gas is contained within magma. As the magma rises to the Earth's surface the gases are exsolved and can become a very important factor in the violence of an eruption. Because some gases are toxic they can suffocate people. Examples of volcanic gases include steam, sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Volcano:A cone which is formed above and around a vent by accumulations of erupted volcanic materials like ash, pumice,lava flows and other volcanic rocks. "Volcano" can refer to both the vent and the cone.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Volcanologist:A person who studies volcanoes and their behaviour.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Volcanology:The science of volcanoes.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Vulcan:God of fire of the ancient Romans. The volcano is named after Vulcan.

bullet-4.gif (76 個位元組)Vulcanian Eruption:A Vulcanian Eruption is similiar to hydrovolcanic activity. Much gas as well as ash, cinders and pumice are given off.  

 

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